Volume 2, Issue 2 (5-2022)                   HASES 2022, 2(2): 201-211 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

RayatSarokolaei F, Vaezmousavi M, Memarmoghaddam M. The Prevalence of Emotional Abuse Among Adolescent Male Football Players. HASES 2022; 2 (2) :201-211
URL: http://hasesjournal.com/article-1-48-en.html
1- Master student of sport psychology, Mazandaran University, Mazandaran, Iran
2- Professor in sport psychology, Imam Hossein University, Tehran, Iran
3- Associate professor in motor behavior, Mazandaran University, Mazandaran, Iran.
Abstract:   (1535 Views)
Emotional abuse is one of the most common types of abuse in sports. However, due to the lack of awareness of its harmful effects and the hiding of this abuse in the shadow of success, less attention has been paid to it. Objective: Emotional abuse is a repetitive pattern of intentional and non-contact behaviors that is performed to control a person and is detrimental to their emotional, cognitive, or physical health. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of emotional abuse among semi-professional adolescent male football players in Mazandaran province. Method: the present study is cross-sectional. A total of 59 football players (aged from 15 to 18 years old) participated in the study voluntarily. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data and descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation coefficient were utilized at a significance level of 0.05 to analyze them. Results: The results showed that 37.25% of the participants have experienced emotional abuse such as humiliation, insult, ignoring, ridicule, etc. by the coach during their sports career which resulted in outcomes such as depression, eating disorders, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be concluded that significant ratios of athletes have experienced emotional abuse that has adverse consequences and, in some cases, has led to quitting sport. Therefore, teaching athletes appropriate coping techniques reduces the frequency of common emotional abuse and protects them from it harm in the future.
Full-Text [PDF 447 kb]   (516 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Qualitative | Subject: Motor behavior
Received: 2022/06/2 | Accepted: 2022/06/7 | Published: 2022/05/31

1. Alexander, K., Stafford, A., & Lewis, R. (2011). The experiences of children participating in organized sport in the UK (Rep.). https://www.nspcc.org.uk/globalassets/documents/ research-reports/experiences-children-participating-organised-sport-uk-summary report.pdf
2. Brassard, M. R. & Donovan, K. L. (2006). Defining psychological maltreatment. In M. M. Feerick, J. F. Knutson, P. K. Trickett, & S. M. Flanzer (Eds.), Child abuse and neglect: Definitions, classifications, and a framework for research (pp. 151-197). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
3. Bringer, J. D., Brackenridge, C. H., & Johnston, L. H. (2001). The name of the game: A review of sexual exploitation of females in sport. Current Women's Health Reports, 1, 225-231.
4. Cense, M., & Brackenridge, C. (2001). Temporal and Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport. European Physical Education Review, 7(1), 61-79. [DOI:10.1177/1356336X010071006]
5. Gervis, M. (2013). Emotional Abuse in Sport: A Case Study of Trichotillomania in a Prepubescent Female Gymnast. Journal of Clinical Case Reports, 03(04), 3-5. [DOI:10.4172/2165-7920.1000264]
6. Gervis, M., & Dunn, N. (2004). The emotional abuse of elite child athletes by their coaches. Child Abuse Review, 13(3), 215-223. [DOI:10.1002/car.843]
7. Gervis, M., Rhind, D., & Luzar, A. (2016). Perceptions of emotional abuse in the coach-athlete relationship in youth sport: The influence of competitive level and outcome. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 11(6), 772-779. [DOI:10.1177/1747954116676103]
8. Glaser, D. (2011). How to deal with emotional abuse and neglect-Further development of a conceptual framework (FRAMEA). Child Abuse and Neglect, 35(10), 866-875. [DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.08.002]
9. Hart, S. N., Brassard, M. R., & Karlson, H. C. (1996). Psychological maltreatment. W: J. Brier, L. Berliner, JA Bulkley, C. Jenny, T. Raid (red.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (s. 72-89).
10. Horne, S. G., Merz, T. A., & Merz, D. P. (2001). Disability and emotional abuse: Mental health consequences and social implications. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2(4), 39-60. [DOI:10.1300/J135v02n04_05]
11. Kavanagh, E., Brown, L., & Jones, I. (2017). Elite Athletes' Experience of Coping With Emotional Abuse in the Coach-Athlete Relationship. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 29(4), 402-417. [DOI:10.1080/10413200.2017.1298165]
12. Kirby, S. L., Greaves, L., & Hankivsky, O. (2000). The dome of silence: Sexual harassment and abuse in sport. Halifax, Canada: Fernwood.
13. Kerr, G. A., & Stirling, A. E. (2012). Parents' Reflections on their Child's Experiences of Emotionally Abusive Coaching Practices. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24(2), 191-206. [DOI:10.1080/10413200.2011.608413]
14. Kerr, G., Stirling, A., & Bandealy, A. (2016). Film depictions of emotionally abusive coach-athlete interactions. Sports Coaching Review, 5(1), 87-101. [DOI:10.1080/21640629.2016.1175149]
15. Mccann, C., Junior, W., & Championships, R. (1996). Editorials Warm up Child abuse in sport Leaders Creatine supplementation : recent developments. 275-276.
16. Moran, P. M., Bifulco, A., Ball, C., Jacobs, C., & Benaim, K. (2002). Exploring psychological abuse in childhood: I. Developing a new interview scale. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 66(3), 213-240. [DOI:10.1521/bumc.]
17. O'Hagan, K. P. (1993). Emotional and psychological abuse of children. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press. [DOI:10.1177/002087289303600312]
18. Papathomas, A., & Lavallee, D. (2012). Narrative constructions of anorexia and abuse: An athlete's search for meaning in trauma. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 17(4), 293-318. [DOI:10.1080/15325024.2011.616740]
19. Parent, S., & Demers, G. (2011). Sexual abuse in sport: A model to prevent and protect athletes. Child Abuse Review, 20(2), 120-133. [DOI:10.1002/car.1135]
20. Smits, F., Jacobs, F., & Knoppers, A. (2017). 'Everything revolves around gymnastics': athletes and parents make sense of elite youth sport. Sport in Society, 20(1), 66-83. [DOI:10.1080/17430437.2015.1124564]
21. Stirling, A. E., & Kerr, G. A. (2008a). Defining and categorizing emotional abuse in sport. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(4), 173-181. [DOI:10.1080/17461390802086281]
22. Stirling, A. E., & Kerr, G. A. (2008b). Elite female swimmers' experiences of emotional abuse across time. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 7(4), 89-113. [DOI:10.1300/J135v07n04_05]
23. Stirling, A. E., & Kerr, G. A. (2009). Abused athletes' perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship. Sport in Society, 12(2), 227-239. [DOI:10.1080/17430430802591019]
24. Stirling, A. E., & Kerr, G. A. (2013). The perceived effects of elite athletes' experiences of emotional abuse in the coach-athlete relationship. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 87-100. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2013.752173]
25. Stirling, A. E., & Kerr, G. A. (2014). Initiating and sustaining emotional abuse in the coach-athlete relationship: An ecological transactional model of vulnerability. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 23(2), 116-135. [DOI:10.1080/10926771.2014.872747]
26. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc. [DOI:10.4135/9781452230153]
27. Stoltenborgh, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Alink, L. R. A., & Van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2012). The universality of childhood emotional abuse: A meta-analysis of worldwide prevalence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 21(8), 870-890. [DOI:10.1080/10926771.2012.708014]
28. Tofler, I. R., Stryer, B. K., Micheli, L. J., & Herman, L. R. (1996). Physical and emotional problems of elite female gymnasts. The New England journal of medicine, 335(4), 281-283. [DOI:10.1056/NEJM199607253350412]
29. Vertommen, T., Kampen, J., Schipper-van Veldhoven, N., Uzieblo, K., & Van Den Eede, F. (2018). Severe interpersonal violence against children in sport: Associated mental health problems and quality of life in adulthood. Child Abuse and Neglect, 76(December 2017), 459-468. [DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.12.013]
30. Wilinsky, C. L., & McCabe, A. (2021). A review of emotional and sexual abuse of elite child athletes by their coaches. Sports Coaching Review, 10(1), 84-109. [DOI:10.1080/21640629.2020.1775378]
31. WHO Cross-Cluster Initiative on Long-Term Care. (‎2002)‎. Ethical choices in long-term care : what does justice require? World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42614
32. Yabe, Y., Hagiwara, Y., Sekiguchi, T., Momma, H., Tsuchiya, M., Kuroki, K., Kanazawa, K., Koide, M., Itaya, N., Yoshida, S., Sogi, Y., Yano, T., Itoi, E., & Nagatomi, R. (2018). The characteristics of coaches that verbally or physically abuse young athletes. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 244(4), 297-304. [DOI:10.1620/tjem.244.297]
33. Yabe, Y., Hagiwara, Y., Sekiguchi, T., Momma, H., Tsuchiya, M., Kuroki, K., Kanazawa, K., Koide, M., Itaya, N., Yoshida, S., Sogi, Y., Yano, T., Itoi, E., & Nagatomi, R. (2019). Verbal abuse from coaches is associated with loss of motivation for the present sport in young athletes: A cross-sectional study in miyagi prefecture. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 248(2), 107-113. [DOI:10.1620/tjem.248.107]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Humanistic approach to sport and exercise studies

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb