Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2021)                   HASES 2021, 1(1): 21-29 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Salehi M, Pyke W, Mohammadzadeh H, Nazari M A, Javadi A. Mental imagery can improve performance in a visuomotor task: a pilot study. HASES. 2021; 1 (1) :21-29
URL: http://hasesjournal.com/article-1-30-en.html
1- School of Sports and Exercise Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran; , ma.salehi@urmia.ac.ir
2- School of Psychology, University of Kent, Canterbury
3- School of Sports and Exercise Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
4- Department of Neuroscience, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5- School of Psychology, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK; Institute of Behavioral Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK; School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
Abstract:   (148 Views)
Abstract: This experiment assessed the effectiveness of two interventions; mental imagery and physical training as compared to a control group, on their ability to improve visuomotor accuracy, measured by scores achieved on a visuomotor task. For mental imagery participants had to imagine throwing a dart and for physical training participants physically practised dart throwing. Measurements were recorded pre-intervention, after two weeks of training (Mid-intervention), after five weeks of training (Outcome Measure 1) and two weeks after training (Outcome Measure 2). Comparison of Mid-intervention, Outcome Measure 1 and Outcome Measure 2 with baseline showed both interventions to significantly increase performance on dart throwing compared to the Control group. Our findings show that, as well as traditional physical practise, mental imagery can effectively improve performance on a fine visuomotor task. This is an important finding highlighting possible applications of mental imagery in those with limited motor abilities to maintain or enhance motor movement.
Full-Text [PDF 955 kb]   (80 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Motor behavior
Received: 2021/11/9 | Accepted: 2021/09/23 | Published: 2021/09/23

1. Get persistent links for your reference list or bibliography. Copy and paste the list, we’ll match with our metadata and return the links. Members may also deposit reference lists here too. Behrmann, M., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. (1992). Dissociation between mental imagery and object recognition in a brain-damaged patient. Nature, 359, 636. https://doi.org/10.1038/359636a0 [DOI:10.1038/359636a0. [Google Scholar]]
2. Brouziyne, M., & Molinaro, C. (2005). Mental imagery combined with physical practice of approach shots for golf beginners. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 101(1), 203-211. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.101.1.203-211 [DOI:10.2466/pms.101.1.203-211. [Google Scholar]]
3. Caetano, C. (1995). Development of Visuomotor Coordination in School-Age Children: The Bimanual Coordination Test. Developmental Neuropsychology, 11(2), 181-199. https://doi.org/10.1080/87565649509540612 [DOI:10.1080/87565649509540612. [Google Scholar]]
4. Cumming, J., & Williams, S. E. (2012). The Role of Imagery in Performance. In S. Murphy (Ed.), Handbook of Sport and Performance Psychology. Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar] [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199731763.013.0011]
5. Feltz, D. L., Landers, D. M., & Becker, B. J. (1988). Enhancing Human Performance. A Revised Meta-Analysis of the Mental Practice Literature on Motor Skill Learning. https://doi.org/10.17226/786 [DOI:10.17226/786. [Google Scholar]]
6. Green, L. B. (1992). The Use of Imagery in the Rehabilitation of Injured Athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 6(4), 416-428. [Google Scholar] [DOI:10.1123/tsp.6.4.416]
7. Grouios, G. (1992). Mental Practice: A Review. Journal of Sport Behavior, 15(1), 1-14. [Google Scholar]
8. Haghkhah, A., Sohrabi, M., Torbati, H. T., & Hajatmand, H. (2014). The Effect of Mental Imagery Focus of Attention on Performance and Learning of Children Dart Throwing Skill The Effect of Mental Imagery Focus of Attention on Performance and Learning of Children Dart Throwing Skill. January. [Google Scholar]
9. Hinshaw, K. E. (1991). The Effects of Mental Practice on Motor Skill Performance: Critical Evaluation and Meta-Analysis. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. https://doi.org/10.2190/X9BA-KJ68-07AN-QMJ8 [DOI:10.2190/x9ba-kj68-07an-qmj8. [Google Scholar]]
10. Hirano, T. (2013). Long-term depression and other synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B, 89(5), 183-195. https://doi.org/10.2183/pjab.89.183 [DOI:10.2183/pjab.89.183. [Google Scholar]]
11. Imamizu, H., Kuroda, T., Miyauchi, S., Yoshioka, T., & Kawato, M. (2003). Modular organization of internal models of tools in the human cerebellum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(9), 5461-5466. [Google Scholar] [DOI:10.1073/pnas.0835746100]
12. Jackson, P. L., Lafleur, M. F., Malouin, F., Richards, C., & Doyon, J. (2001). Potential role of mental practice using motor imagery in neurologic rehabilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(8), 1133-1141. [Google Scholar] [DOI:10.1053/apmr.2001.24286]
13. Karni, A., Meyer, G., Jezzard, P., Adams, M. M., Turner, R., & Ungerleider, L. G. (1995). Functional MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticity during motor skill learning. Nature, 377(6545), 155-158. [Google Scholar] [DOI:10.1038/377155a0]
14. Kohl, R. M., Ellis, S. D., & Roenker, D. L. (1992). Alternating actual and imagery practice: preliminary theoretical considerations. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63(2), 162-170. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1992.10607576 [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1992.10607576 [Google Scholar]]
15. Kornspan, A. S., Overby, L. Y., & Lerner, B. S. (2004). Analysis and Performance of Pre-performance Imagery and Other Strategies on a Golf Putting Task. Journal of Mental Imagery, 28(3), 59-74. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005369 [DOI:10.1029/2009JC005369. [Google Scholar]]
16. Kosslyn, S. M., DiGirolamo, G. J., Thompson, W. L., & Alpert, N. M. (1998). Mental rotation of objects versus hands: Neural mechanisms revealed by positron emission tomography. Psychophysiology, 35(2), 151-161. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0048577298001516 [DOI:10.1017/S0048577298001516. [Google Scholar]]
17. Kosslyn, S. M., Ganis, G., & Thompson, W. L. (2001). Neural foundations of imagery. In Nature Reviews Neuroscience (Vol. 2, Issue 9, pp. 635-642). https://doi.org/10.1038/35090055 [DOI:10.1038/35090055. [Google Scholar]]
18. Krakauer, J. W., & Shadmehr, R. (2006). Consolidation of motor memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 29(1), 58-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2005.10.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.tins.2005.10.003. [Google Scholar]]
19. Lee, N. K., Kwon, Y. H., Son, S. M., Nam, S. H., & Kim, J. S. (2013). The Effects of Aging on Visuomotor Coordination and Proprioceptive Function in the Upper Limb. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 25(5), 627-629. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.25.627 [DOI:10.1589/jpts.25.627. [Google Scholar]]
20. Louis, M., Guillot, A., Maton, S., Doyon, J., & Collet, C. (2008). Effect of imagined movement speed on subsequent motor performance. Journal of Motor Behavior, 40(2), 117-132. [Google Scholar] [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.40.2.117-132]
21. Ma, L., Wang, B., Narayana, S., Hazeltine, E., Chen, X., Robin, D. A., Fox, P. T., & Xiong, J. (2010). Changes in regional activity are accompanied with changes in inter-regional connectivity during 4 weeks motor learning. Brain Research, 1318, 64-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.12.073 [DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.12.073. [Google Scholar]]
22. Martin, K. A., Moritz, S. E., & Hall, C. R. (1999). Imagery use in sport: A literature review and applied model. In Sport Psychologist (Vol. 13, Issue 3, pp. 245-268). Human Kinetics Publishers Inc. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.13.3.245 [DOI:10.1123/tsp.13.3.245. [Google Scholar]]
23. McBride, E. R., & Rothstein, A. L. (1979). Mental and Physical Practice and the Learning and Retention of Open and Closed Skills. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 49(2), 359-365. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1979.49.2.359 [DOI:10.2466/pms.1979.49.2.359. [Google Scholar]]
24. Morris, T., Spittle, M., & Watt, A. (2005). Imagery In Sport. Human Kinetics. [Google Scholar].
25. Muellbacher, W., Ziemann, U., Wissel, J., Dang, N., Kofler, M., Facchini, S., & Hallett, M. (2002). Early consolidation in human primary motor cortex. Nature, 415(6872), 640-644. [Google Scholar] [DOI:10.1038/nature712]
26. Newell, K. M. (1991). Motor skill acquisition. Physical Therapy, 71(2), 123-139. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.42.020191.001241 [DOI:10.1146/annurev.ps.42.020191.001241. [Google Scholar]]
27. Packard, M. G., & Knowlton, B. J. (2002). Learning and Memory Functions of the Basal Ganglia. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 25(1), 563-593. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.25.112701.142937 [DOI:10.1146/annurev.neuro.25.112701.142937. [Google Scholar]]
28. Page, S. J., Levine, P., Sisto, S., & Johnston, M. V. (2001). A randomized efficacy and feasibility study of imagery in acute stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 15(3), 233-240. [Google Scholar] [DOI:10.1191/026921501672063235]
29. Pearson, J. (2019). The human imagination: the cognitive neuroscience of visual mental imagery. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41583-019-0202-9 [DOI:10.1038/s41583-019-0202-9. [Google Scholar]]
30. Pearson, J., Naselaris, T., Holmes, E. A., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2015). Mental Imagery: Functional Mechanisms and Clinical Applications. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(10), 590-602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.08.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2015.08.003. [Google Scholar]]
31. Richter, W., Somorjai, R., Summers, R., Jarmasz, M., Menon, R. S., Gati, J. S., Georgopoulos, A. P., Tegeler, C., Ugurbil, K., & Kim, S. G. (2000). Motor area activity during mental rotation studied by time-resolved single-trial fMRI. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(2), 310-320. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10771414. [Google Scholar] [DOI:10.1162/089892900562129]
32. Sirigu, A., Duhamel, J.-R., Cohen, L., Pillon, B., Dubois, B., & Agid, Y. (1996). Sirigu, A., Duhamel, J.-R., Cohen, L., Pillon, B., Dubois, B., & Agid, Y. (1996). The Mental Representation of Hand Movements After Parietal Cortex Damage. Science, 273(5281), 1564-1568. Science, 273(5281), 1564-1568. [Google Scholar] [DOI:10.1126/science.273.5281.1564]
33. Slimani, M., Tod, D., Chaabene, H., Miarka, B., & Chamari, K. (2016). Effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy and patient participants: A systematic review. In Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (Vol. 15, Issue 3, pp. 434-450). Journal of Sport Science and Medicine. http://www.jssm.org. [Google Scholar]
34. Vaezmousavi, S. M., & Rostami, R. (2009). The Effects of Cognitive and Motivational Imagery on Acquisition , Retention and Transfer of the Basketball Free Throw. World Journal of Sport Sciences, 2(2), 129-135. [Google Scholar]
35. White, A., & Hardy, L. (1995). Use of different imagery perspectives on the learning and performance of different motor skills. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 169-180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1995.tb02554.x [DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1995.tb02554.x. [Google Scholar]]
36. White, K., Ashton, R., & Lewis, S. (1979). Learning a complex skill: Effects of mental practice, physical practice, and imagery ability. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 10(2), 71-78.. [Google Scholar].
37. Yu, Q. H., Fu, A. S. N., Kho, A., Li, J., Sun, X. H., & Chan, C. C. H. (2016). Imagery perspective among young athletes: Differentiation between external and internal visual imagery. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 5(2), 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2014.12.008 [DOI:10.1016/j.jshs.2014.12.008. [Google Scholar]]
38. Ziemann, U. (2004). Learning Modifies Subsequent Induction of Long-Term Potentiation-Like and Long-Term Depression-Like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(7), 1666-1672. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5016-03.2004 [DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5016-03.2004. [Google Scholar]]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Humanistic approach to sport and exercise studies

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb